Batik is one way of making fabric. Besides batik can refer to two things. The first is the technique of coloring cloth using the night to prevent staining in part of the fabric. International Dalamliteratur, this technique is known as wax-resist dyeing. The second notion is the fabric or clothing made with these techniques, including the use of certain motives which have peculiarities. Batik Indonesia, as the overall engineering, technology, and development-related motives and culture, UNESCO has been designated a Cultural Heritage for Humanity Oral and Nonbendawi (Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity) since October 2, 2009.


The word "batik" is derived from the combination of two Javanese words "amba", meaning "writing" and "point" which means "point".

History of batik technique

Art staining fabric with stain barrier technique using one malamadalah ancient art form. The discovery in Egypt showed that this technique has been known since the 4th century BC, with the discovery mummy wrapping cloth which is also coated the night to form a pattern. In Asia, a similar technique of batik is also applied in China during the T'ang Dynasty (618-907) as well as in India and Japan during the Nara Period (645-794).

In Africa, such as batik technique known by the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria, Soninke tribe and Wolofdi and Senegal. In Indonesia, batik is believed to have existed since the time of Majapahit, and became very popular late eighteenth century or early nineteenth century. Produced batik batik is it all until the early twentieth century and the new batik known after World War I or around the 1920's. Although the word "batik" is derived from the Javanese, the presence of batik in Java itself is not recorded. G.P. Rouffaer found batik technique is likely introduced from India or Sri Lanka in the 6th century or the 7th.

On the other hand, J.L.A. Brandes (Dutch archaeologist) and F.A. Sutjipto (Indonesian historians) believe that the tradition of batik is a native of the area such as Toraja, Flores, Halmahera, and Papua. It should be noted that the area is not an area that is influenced by Hinduism but known to the ancient tradition of batik making. G.P. Rouffaer gringsing also reported that the pattern has been known since the 12th century in Kediri, East Java. He concluded that this pattern can only be formed by using a canting, so he argues that the canting is found in Java in the period surrounding it. Detailed carvings that resemble the patterns of batik cloth worn by Prajnaparamita, the statue of the Buddhist goddess of wisdom from East Java, 13th century. Detailed clothing featuring vines pattern and intricate flowers that are similar to traditional Javanese batik patterns that can be found today.

This suggests that making intricate batik patterns that can only be made with a canting has been known in Java since the 13th century or even earlier. Legend in Malay literature of the 17th century, Sulalatus Salatin menceritakanLaksamana Hang Nadim ordered by Sultan Mahmud to sail to India to get 140 pieces of fabric litter with 40 kinds of flower patterns on each page. Being unable to fulfill the order, he made himself the fabrics. But unfortunately shipwrecked on the way home and only capable of carrying four pieces that make the Emperor disappointed.

By some commentators, it is interpreted as a litter batik.Dalam European literature, batik technique was first described in bukuHistory of Java (London, 1817) writings of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. He had been a British governor of Java during Napoleon occupied the Netherlands. In 1873 a Dutch merchant Van Rijekevorsel gave a piece of batik obtained during a visit to Indonesia to the Ethnic Museum in Rotterdamdan in the early 19th century that began batik reached its golden period. When exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900, Indonesian batik riveting public and artists. Since the industrialization and globalization, which introduces automation techniques, new types emerged batik, known as batik cap and batik prints, while traditional batik produced by the technique of handwriting using canting and night is called batik. Hugh Clifford recording industry in 1895 to produce the Week batik, rainbow fabric, and the fabric telepok.

Types of batik

According to the technique

Batik is a cloth that is decorated with textures and patterns of batik by hand. This type of batik making takes approximately 2-3 months.

Batik cap is decorated with fabric textures and patterns created with batik cap (usually made of copper). This type of batik making process takes approximately 2-3 days.

Batik painting is the process of making batik with a direct way to paint on a white cloth.

According to the origin of manufacture

Javanese Batik

Javanese batik art is a cultural heritage of Indonesia, especially Java-controlled areas of the Javanese people from generation to generation. Javanese Batik motifs have different. This motif is common difference dikarnakan motives that have meaning, the purpose is not just an image but implies that they can from their ancestors, namely religion animism, dynamism, or Hindus and Buddhists. Javanese Batik in many developing regions Solo or commonly referred to as Solo batik.

Ways of making

Originally batik made on material with white color made of cloth called kapasyang. Today the batik is also made on other materials such as silk, polyester, rayon and other synthetic materials. Motif formed by the liquid wax by using a tool called a canting for subtle motifs, or brush for large motif, so that the liquid wax to seep into the fabric fibers. Fabrics that have been painted with wax and then dyed with the desired color, usually starting from a young colors. Immersion then taken to another motif with color or black older. After some time the coloring process, which has dibatik cloth dipped in chemicals to dissolve the wax.

Three Batik State

Hokokai Javanese batik, 1942-1945
Batik Pekalongan buketan origin with European design influences
Batik buketan
Batik Lasem

By region of origin

Batik Bali
Banyumas batik
Batik Madura
Batik Malang
Batik Pekalongan
Batik Solo
Batik Tasik
Batik Aceh
Batik Cirebon
Batik Jombang
Batik Banten
Batik vBulletin
Batik Kediri
Holy Batik
Batik Jepara / Batik Kartini
Batik Bradford
Batik Minangkabau
Dutch Batik
Batik Japan
Based on the pattern
Batik Kraton
Batik Sudagaran
Batik Cuwiri
Batik Farmers
Batik Patch
Batik Sida Mukti
Batik Sekar Jagad
Batik Pringgondani
Batik Kawung
Batik Sida Luhur
Batik Sida Asih
Batik Rama Cement

Culture of Batik

R.A. heroine Kartinidan her husband wearing batik skirt. Batik motifs used machetes Kartini is a pattern to the nobles

Batik is a craft that has high artistic value and has become part of the culture of Indonesia (especially Java) since long. Javanese women in the past made their skills in batik for a living, so in the past batik work is exclusively women's work until the invention of "Batik Cap" which allows the entry of men into the field. There are some exceptions to this phenomenon, namely the coastal batik masculine lines as can be seen in shades of "Mega Clouds", which in some coastal areas batik work is common for men.

The tradition of batik was originally a hereditary tradition, so that occasionally a recognizable motif batik originated from a particular family. Some batik may indicate the status of a person. Even today, some traditional 'batik motif is only used by keluargakeraton Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Batik is the ancestral heritage of Indonesia (Java) that until now still exist. Batik is also first introduced to the world by President Suharto, who was then wearing batik at the UN Conference.

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